2min readLifestyle 09 August 2019
My earliest memories of wanting to be a conductor were of me as a 10 year old, grabbing the chopsticks from my parents takeout Chinese food bag, tearing off the paper wrapper and standing in front of the TV waving my "baton" at the screen while the Boston Pops played a concert. I was fully convinced that I was in control of the music, conducting before a large crowd and fully immersed in the glorious sound of violins.
Now years later, having conducted concerts in 22 countries and with over 90 different orchestras, I look back and wonder how I persevered in a male-dominated field and found the courage to rise through the ranks. Encouragement did not actually come fully from my parents. Although we were a musical family, enjoyed music at home and were encouraged to take piano lessons, supporting me in pursuit of a professional conducting career was something my parents were not fully equipped to do. My dad had particular worries about how I would ever make a living, and his notion of a conductor was an older white male, with a mane of silver hair who stood commandingly on the podium.
But something in me lit on fire as I waved those chopsticks at the TV screen, and it never left me. I started conducting my high school choir and ensembles at the local community college and eventually went on to study conducting as an undergraduate and graduate student. It was not until I moved to Germany right after receiving my Masters of Music degree in conducting that I fully understood the prejudices toward women on the podium. I had a few lucky breaks when I landed in Germany and soon after jumped into leading full scale opera productions. But people, and surprising numbers of women, would ask me, "Why are you conducting? You should be home having kids and polishing your husband's shoes."
Once I had an interview in Germany at a large opera house where I was hoping they would engage me as guest conductor or staff conductor. An older gruff, male artistic director of the company proceeded to sternly instruct me, two minutes into my interview, to go home and write a 15 page essay explaining why I wanted to be a conductor and why I felt I deserved to be a conductor and return it to him. I was speechless, my face flushed with anger, as I asked him over and over again to explain why I should have to do this. I was ushered out of the interview and in a state of shock, went home and actually took out a legal yellow pad and began to scribble notes. I threw it down after a short time and decided that if my resume did not speak loudly enough to my many accomplishments, then that particular opera house was not the place for me. I also was pretty sure that being a young aspiring FEMALE conductor was the reason for this experience.
I worked for more than a decade in Europe, conducted productions in opera houses, toured with top youth orchestras, taught at the University of Berlin and continued to advance my career. It was when I decided to start a family that I heard comments like, "I feel sorry for your children." Or "I bet your kids miss their mom." I realized that it was a veiled way of saying that women really don't belong in this type of job, and that it takes too much time and energy to do a "man's work."
But my inner strength was never in short supply in my mind, and I conducted festivals and concerts with great successes. Looking back I realize that every stone that was put in my path only energized me to be better, work harder, be stronger and to never, ever give up. It served me well through the years. I toured for two years to 14 countries doing a live to picture show and encountered fierce sexism from the producer who hired me. He would inspect my clothes, come into my dressing room, examine my shoes, comment on my makeup and warn me not to be too strong, but to be sweeter. That fueled my desire to become my own producer.
After two years of international touring, I wanted to be the captain of my own ship, do my own projects and not be hassled for my eyeliner. So, after retiring from that tour I founded Orchestra Moderne NYC, a top level ensemble in New York City that plays culturally relatable music with a focus on social justice. Our first debut was a Carnegie Hall concert honoring immigrants called, The Journey to America: From Repression to Freedom. The topic of immigration was a hot button issue during the 2016 presidential campaign. I felt so passionate about honoring immigrants who have come to this country that I constructed an entire concert devoted to the subject. From that successful launch, I realized that the only thing that would ever hold me back, would be my own doubts, not anybody else's. And I had no doubts.
Our upcoming concert is September 20th, 2019 at Alice Tully Hall, Lincoln Center in NYC. After the immigrants concert, I began researching the lives of strong women from the past eight hundred years, and found activists of uncommon strength, courage and valor whose fearlessness changed the course of history. I wanted to honor the strength and heroism of activists past and present who have fought for civil and human rights, against climate change and gender equality and for the right of every girl to an education. Thus Women Warriors: The Voices of Change was born.
I teamed with award-wining Hollywood female composers to create a timely and
inspiring concert. With moving documentary footage and rich and emotional symphonic music, the concert will give hope and voice to women and girls around the world. The project that has taken nearly two years; I am in charge of hiring, fundraising, programming, producing, conducting and just about everything else. I gladly carry the stress of doing everything myself because I know women are strong, women are courageous, and women get the job done.
I am the sum total of all of the experiences in my life. Every difficulty, challenge, loss, pain, as well as victory, joy and success has shaped me into the strong and confident woman I have become. Women Warriors: The Voices of Change is the result of perseverance, resilience, and mental tenacity, coupled with the belief that I am as good as any man. If I encounter any resistance to what I am doing, I just remember that I am captain of my own ship.
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Business entities can be defined as the corporate, tax and legal structures which an organization chooses to officially follow at the time of its official registration with the state authorities. In total, there are fifteen different types of business entities, which would be the following.
- Sole Proprietorship
- General Partnership
- Limited Partnership or LP
- Limited Liability Partnership or LLP
- Limited Liability Limited Partnership or LLLP
- Limited Liability Company or LLC
- Professional LLC
- Professional Corporation
- Nonprofit Organization
- Cooperative Organization
As estates, municipalities and nonprofits do not concern the main topic here, the following discussions will exclude the three.
Importance of the State: The Same Corporate Structure Will Vary from State to State
All organizations must register themselves as entities at the state level in United States, so the rules and regulations governing them differ quite a bit, based on the state in question.
What this means is that a Texas LLC for example will not operate under the same rules and regulations as an LLC registered in New York. Also, an LLC in Texas can have the same name as another company that is registered in a different state, but it's not advisable given how difficult it could become in the future while filing for patents.
To know more about such quirks and step-by-step instructions on how to start an LLC in Texas, visit howtostartanllc.com, and you could get started with the online process immediately. The information and services on the website are not just limited to Texas LLC organizations either, but they have a dedicated page for guiding fresh entrepreneurs through the corporate tax structures in every state.
Sole Proprietorship: Default for Freelancers and Consultants
There is only one owner or head in a sole proprietorship, and that's what makes it ideal for one-man businesses that deal with freelance work and consulting services. Single man sole proprietorships are automatic in nature, therefore, registration with the state is unnecessary.
Sole proprietorships are also suited to a degree for singular teams such as a small construction crew, a group of handymen, or even miniature establishments in retail. Also, this puts the owner's personal financial status at jeopardy.
Due to the fact that a sole proprietorship entity puts all responsibilities for paying taxes and returning loans, it directly jeopardizes the sole proprietor's personal belongings in case of a lawsuit, or even after a failed loan repayment.
This is the main reason why even the most miniature establishments find LLCs to be a better option, but this is not the only reason either. Sole proprietors also find it hard to start their business credit or even get significant business loans.
General Partnership: Equal Responsibilities
The only significant difference between a General Partnership and a Sole Proprietorship is the fact that two or more owners share responsibilities and liabilities equally in a General Partnership, as opposed to there being only one responsible and liable party in the latter. Other than that, they more or less share the same pros and cons.
Registration with the state is not necessary in most cases, and although it still puts the finances of the business owners at risk here, the partnership divides the liability, making it a slightly better option than sole proprietorship for small teams of skilled workers or even small restaurants and such.
Limited Partnership: Active and Investing Partners
A Limited Partnership (LP) has to be registered with a state and whether it has just two or more partners, there are two different types of partners in all LP establishments.
The active partner or the general partner is the one who is responsible and liable for operating the business in its entirety. The silent or investing partner, on the other hand, is the one who invests funds or other resources into the organization. The latter has very limited liability or control over the company's operations.
It's a perfect way for investors to put their money into a sector that they are personally not experienced with, but have access to people who do. From the perspective of the general partners, they have similar responsibilities and liabilities to those in a general partnership.
It's the default strategy for startups to find funding and as long as the idea is sound, it has made way for multiple successful entrepreneurial ventures in the recent past. However, personal liability still looms as a dangerous prospect for the active partners to consider.
Limited Liability Company and Professional LLC
Small businesses have no better entity structure to follow than the LLC, given that it takes multiple good ideas from various corporate structures, virtually eliminating most cons that are inherent to them. Any and all small businesses that are in a position to or are in requirement of signing up with their respective state, usually choose an LLC entity because of the following reasons:
- It removes the dangerous aspect of personal liability if the business falls in debt or is sued for reparations
- The state offers the choice of choosing between corporation and partnership tax slabs
- The limited legalities and paperwork make it suited for small businesses
While more expensive than a general partnership or a sole proprietorship, a professional LLC is going to be a much safer choice for freelancers and consultants, especially if it involves risk of any kind. This makes it ideal for even single man businesses such a physician's practice or the consultancy services of an accountant.
B, C and S-Corporation
By definition, all corporation entities share most of the same attributes and as the term suggests, they're more suited for larger or at least medium sized businesses in any sector. The differences between the three are vast once you delve into the tax structures which govern each entity.
However, the basic differences can be observed by simply taking a look at each of their definitive descriptions, as stated below.
C-Corporation – This is the default corporate entity for large or medium-large businesses, complete with a board of directors, a CEO/CEOs, other executive officers and shareholders.
The shareholders or owners are not liable for debts or legal dispute settlements in a C-Corporation, and they may qualify for lower tax slabs than is possible in any other corporate structure. On becoming big enough, they also have the option to become a publicly traded company, which is ideal for generating growth investments.
B- Corporation – the same rules apply as a C-Corporation, but due to their registered and certified commitment to social and environmental standards maintenance, B-Corporations will have a more lenient tax structure to deal with.
S-Corporation – Almost identical to a C-Corporation, the difference is in scale, as S-Corporations are only meant for small businesses, general partnerships and even sole proprietors. The main difference here is that due to the creation of a pass-through entity, aka a S-Corporation, the owner/owners do not have liability for business debt and legal disputes. They also are not taxed on the corporate slab.
Cooperative: Limited Application
A cooperation structure in most cases is a voluntary partnership of limited responsibilities that binds people in mutual interest - it is an inefficient structure due to the voluntary nature of its legal bindings, which often makes it unsuitable for traditional business operations. Nevertheless, the limited liability clause exempts all members of a cooperative from having personal liability for paying debts and settling claims.
This should clear up most of the confusion surrounding the core concepts and their suitability. In case you are wondering why the Professional Corporation structure wasn't mentioned, then that's because it has very limited applications. Meant for self-employed, skilled professionals or small organizations founded by them, they have less appeal now in comparison to an LLC or an S-Corporation.