Recently, Rolling Stone gave Spotify a pat on the back for its new resolve to give away more free music in a scheme that promises to convert listeners into buyers. With fleeting objectivity, the magazine recognized the concerns of skeptical artists and record labels, then quickly rerouted readers by crediting Spotify—which became a public company in early April 2018—for kick-starting the stalled industry and initiating the recovery process.
"Thanks to the boom of streaming in recent years, music is finally coming out of its two-decade slump. The United States posted music revenue of $8.7 billion last year–a 17 percent year-over-year increase that took the industry back up to its 2008 levels." -Rolling Stone, April 24, 2018
"Finally coming out of its two-decade slump" may be a bit overstated. According to the latest report from the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), 2017's total global revenue of $17.3 billion represented only 68.4 percent of the industry's peak in 1999 when worldwide revenue topped out at approximately $27 billion, with the U.S. staking claim to $14.6 billion. Attributing the great decline of illegal free music downloading, the IFPI fought long and hard for measures to sanction unlicensed music services, so it begs the question: if more music is distributed for free (and free is free whether legal or not), can the music industry sustain its tenuous growth? The majority of artists and record labels say "no."
Admittedly, streaming music platforms—now the largest revenue source—have pushed the needle, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the U.S. market, but when it comes to how artists are paid, there is a wide chasm between what the top platforms are earning and the royalties they are paying to the artists. A January 2018 report from Digital Music News provides an overview of the leading platforms' pay-per-play rates, underscoring why artists and labels have every reason to believe Spotify's bold move coupled with its existing royalty structure will continue to hinder the industry's recovery:
- Napster: Listed as Rhapsody, Napster paid $0.01682 per play in 2017, with a 1.75 percent U.S. market share.
- Apple Music: As a subscription-only service with no free tier, Apple now offers a pay-per-play rate of $0.00783, with a U.S. market share of 22.29 percent.
- Amazon: Though facts on artist payouts for Amazon Prime Music and Music Unlimited are guarded, The Trichordist (Artists for an Ethical and Sustainable Internet) reports a pay-per-play rate of $0.0074, with a 3.8 percent U.S. market share.
- Spotify: Spotify, with the highest number of paid subscribers, pays a paltry $0.00397 per stream, commanding more than half (51 percent) of the U.S. market share, with top executives reportedly earning seven-figure salaries.
To add insult to injury, Digital Music News reports that 99 percent of 2017's 377 billion streams were from the top 10 percent of available songs—which were dominated by male artists. What's worse, the current royalty structures continue to hold artists hostage even under the best circumstances. Independent labels, for example, may offer artists half of the profits (that's at wholesale—not retail), but the typical split with big record labels is significantly smaller—between 10 and 16 percent in favor of the label.
Equal Pay for Equal Play
Satisfying consumers at the expense of the artists they promote, the current leading streaming platforms being credited for resuscitating the music industry inarguably benefit only top-tier musicians—and least of all women. A new study by the USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative reveals these harsh realities for female artists, who continue to find themselves at the bottom of the multi-billion-dollar industry:
- Just 22 percent of releases on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart between 2012 and 2017 were from women artists.
- Only 12 percent of releases on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart between 2012 and 2017 were penned by female songwriters.
- In the previous six years of Grammy nominations in five categories, less than 10 percent of all nominees were female.
- Since 2013, no women have been nominated for Producer of the Year.
- Females traditionally represent less than 10 percent of nominees for Record or Album of the Year.
- Slightly more than one third of the female nominees at the previous six Grammy Awards were women from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups.
- In 2017, of the total 1,239 artists attached to the 600 top songs, only 16.8 percent were women, reflecting a six‐year low for female artists in popular content.
- In the recording studio, male producers outnumber female producers 49 to one.
So, while it may have been a banner year for some, not all pieces of the music industry pie get divided equitably. With women so blatantly marginalized and underrepresented, it will take more than inclusion to bring them above water; it will take an entirely new platform that opens the access gates and a royalty structure that removes the handcuffs once and for all.
Addressing the Challenges of a Tone-Deaf Industry
Continuing to be the voice of change, calling for fair compensation as well as freedom from discrimination and sexual harassment in every sector, women are finding new inroads into the music industry while simultaneously impacting society on a larger scale. Consider Michele Anthony, Executive VP of Universal Music Group, who was named the 2017 UJA-Federation of New York Music "Visionary of the Year" for her commitment to philanthropy, and Nicki Farag, Senior VP of promotion at Def Jam Records, who pushed to the top of the charts—against all odds—the rapper Logic's controversial and heart-wrenching song "1-800-273-8255," which features Alessia Cara and Khalid and supports suicide prevention efforts. Yet, these women and others like them are just the tip of the iceberg. Recognizing the need for a level playing field in order for women—and the music industry—to not just survive, but thrive, record companies are pitching in and partnering with innovators and entrepreneurs to enrich and enhance the music experience and its potential to positively impact fans, labels, artists and charitable organizations alike. With new players pushing the boundaries and providing platforms that offer independent and established artists equality in access, exposure and earning strategies, a new dawn may be on the horizon.
We can hear it now, a music industry of the future, where female artists represent half of all award winners, songwriters, producers and top earners. Where full and fair compensation means a 90/10 split in the artist's favor. Where fans can engage with artists in new ways and where the transformational power of music is unleashed, appreciated, shared and benefitting to all.
Edge Music Network (EMN) is a music video streaming service providing live and on-demand content through a video syndication platform designed to enable a fair compensation structure ensuring artists get the royalties they deserve and fans get uninterrupted access to the music they love—anytime, anywhere. With powerful search tools for discovering and streaming on demand, users can watch the latest music videos, concerts and events of the highest quality. The EMN mobile app unlocks premium content, allowing users to easily create, manage and share custom playlists and enjoy channels with music videos curated by EMN experts. The Edge Music Network dedicates a percentage of profits to charitable causes that feed the hungry, aid victims of natural disasters and support homeless veterans. Supported by an advisory board of renowned musicians and industry professionals, and in partnership with leading content creators, independent artists and marquee music labels like Universal, Capitol Records, Def Jam and Geffen—Edge Music Network is on a mission to reinvent how music is heard, viewed and shared. Edge Music Network delivers an unlimited, unrestricted and unbelievable audio and video experience—and unites people with the transformative power of music.
"The Edge Music Network dedicates a percentage of profits to charitable causes that feed the hungry, aid victims of natural disasters and support homeless veterans"
For decades, women have been unknowingly suffering from PSD and intergenerational trauma, but now Dr. Valerie Rein wants women to reclaim their power through mind, body and healing tools.
As women, no matter how many accomplishments we have or how successful we look on the outside, we all occasionally hear that nagging internal voice telling us to do more. We criticize ourselves more than anyone else and then throw ourselves into the never-ending cycle of self-care, all in effort to save ourselves from crashing into this invisible internal wall. According to psychologist, entrepreneur and author, Dr. Valerie Rein, these feelings are not your fault and there is nothing wrong with you— but chances are you definitely suffering from Patriarchy Stress Disorder.
Patriarchy Stress Disorder (PSD) is defined as the collective inherited trauma of oppression that forms an invisible inner barrier to women's happiness and fulfillment. The term was coined by Rein who discovered a missing link between trauma and the effects that patriarchal power structures have had on certain groups of people all throughout history up until the present day. Her life experience, in addition to research, have led Rein to develop a deeper understanding of the ways in which men and women are experiencing symptoms of trauma and stress that have been genetically passed down from previously oppressed generations.
What makes the discovery of this disorder significant is that it provides women with an answer to the stresses and trauma we feel but cannot explain or overcome. After being admitted to the ER with stroke-like symptoms one afternoon, when Rein noticed the left side of her body and face going numb, she was baffled to learn from her doctors that the results of her tests revealed that her stroke-like symptoms were caused by stress. Rein was then left to figure out what exactly she did for her clients in order for them to be able to step into the fullness of themselves that she was unable to do for herself. "What started seeping through the tears was the realization that I checked all the boxes that society told me I needed to feel happy and fulfilled, but I didn't feel happy or fulfilled and I didn't feel unhappy either. I didn't feel much of anything at all, not even stress," she stated.
Photo Courtesy of Dr. Valerie Rein
This raised the question for Rein as to what sort of hidden traumas women are suppressing without having any awareness of its presence. In her evaluation of her healing methodology, Rein realized that she was using mind, body and trauma healing tools with her clients because, while they had never experienced a traumatic event, they were showing the tell-tale symptoms of trauma which are described as a disconnect from parts of ourselves, body and emotions. In addition to her personal evaluation, research at the time had revealed that traumatic experiences are, in fact, passed down genetically throughout generations. This was Rein's lightbulb moment. The answer to a very real problem that she, and all women, have been experiencing is intergenerational trauma as a result of oppression formed under the patriarchy.
Although Rein's discovery would undoubtably change the way women experience and understand stress, it was crucial that she first broaden the definition of trauma not with the intention of catering to PSD, but to better identify the ways in which trauma presents itself in the current generation. When studying psychology from the books and diagnostic manuals written exclusively by white men, trauma was narrowly defined as a life-threatening experience. By that definition, not many people fit the bill despite showing trauma-like symptoms such as disconnections from parts of their body, emotions and self-expression. However, as the field of psychology has expanded, more voices have been joining the conversations and expanding the definition of trauma based on their lived experience. "I have broadened the definition to say that any experience that makes us feel unsafe psychically or emotionally can be traumatic," stated Rein. By redefining trauma, people across the gender spectrum are able to find validation in their experiences and begin their journey to healing these traumas not just for ourselves, but for future generations.
While PSD is not experienced by one particular gender, as women who have been one of the most historically disadvantaged and oppressed groups, we have inherited survival instructions that express themselves differently for different women. For some women, this means their nervous systems freeze when faced with something that has been historically dangerous for women such as stepping into their power, speaking out, being visible or making a lot of money. Then there are women who go into fight or flight mode. Although they are able to stand in the spotlight, they pay a high price for it when their nervous system begins to work in a constant state of hyper vigilance in order to keep them safe. These women often find themselves having trouble with anxiety, intimacy, sleeping or relaxing without a glass of wine or a pill. Because of this, adrenaline fatigue has become an epidemic among high achieving women that is resulting in heightened levels of stress and anxiety.
"For the first time, it makes sense that we are not broken or making this up, and we have gained this understanding by looking through the lens of a shared trauma. All of these things have been either forbidden or impossible for women. A woman's power has always been a punishable offense throughout history," stated Rein.
Although the idea of having a disorder may be scary to some and even potentially contribute to a victim mentality, Rein wants people to be empowered by PSD and to see it as a diagnosis meant to validate your experience by giving it a name, making it real and giving you a means to heal yourself. "There are still experiences in our lives that are triggering PSD and the more layers we heal, the more power we claim, the more resilience we have and more ability we have in staying plugged into our power and happiness. These triggers affect us less and less the more we heal," emphasized Rein. While the task of breaking intergenerational transmission of trauma seems intimidating, the author has flipped the negative approach to the healing journey from a game of survival to the game of how good can it get.
In her new book, Patriarchy Stress Disorder: The Invisible Barrier to Women's Happiness and Fulfillment, Rein details an easy system for healing that includes the necessary tools she has sourced over 20 years on her healing exploration with the pioneers of mind, body and trauma resolution. Her 5-step system serves to help "Jailbreakers" escape the inner prison of PSD and other hidden trauma through the process of Waking Up in Prison, Meeting the Prison Guards, Turning the Prison Guards into Body Guards, Digging the Tunnel to Freedom and Savoring Freedom. Readers can also find free tools on Rein's website to help aid in their healing journey and exploration.
"I think of the book coming out as the birth of a movement. Healing is not women against men– it's women, men and people across the gender spectrum, coming together in a shared understanding that we all have trauma and we can all heal."