This year, NASA named six new flight directors to lead mission control at the Johnson Space Center. Pooja Jesrani is among them, breaking glass ceilings as the first South Asian woman to take on this opportunity. “We're in a really exciting time for the space program in the United States," Jesrani exclaimed. “I feel very honored and humbled."
Jesrani has always been interested in space. In fact, it was her father who inspired her. “I grew up with a dad who had an affinity for space and I think it sort of rubbed off on me," she shared. Her parents who are from India originally, moved to England and then the United States when she was 10 years old. Houston not only became her new home but was also home of the Johnson Space Center. Her father motivated her to pursue a career in aerospace engineering at The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) after she finished high school.
Offiicial NASA portrait of Flight Director Pooja Jesrani. Photo Date: July 9, 2018. Location: Building 8, Room 183 - Photo Studio. Photographer: Robert Markowitz
Like Jesrani, her father also aspired to be an engineer. Although a test, similar to the SAT's, determined his fate. “In India when you [get] a perfect score you can become a doctor [or] engineer," she said. “He scored really well and his family said 'now [you'll] become a doctor.'" Years after entering the medical field he is now a successful orthopedic surgeon who continues to share a passion for space with his daughter. “He's probably read more space books than me; he talks about space better than me," she admitted. “He's the one that keeps me on my toes." Her father is her avid supporter and he was the first person she called when she got the job.
Her journey began at UT Austin, “I got my first internship with a contractor at NASA," she mentioned. “I worked as an intern for a few years and once I graduated from UT Austin I came back full-time," she said. The internship opportunity opened many doors for her career and future. Jesrani worked her way up to flight director, a position that is very sought after and competitive at NASA. “There were over 500 applicants this time and this was my first time applying," she shared.
There have been less than 100 appointed flight directors since the beginning of human space flight. Out of 90 flight directors, including her class, there have only been 14 women. South Asians are still a minority, but Jesrani makes it clear she was not the only one. “There have been only two South Asians ever in the history of human spaceflight in the United States of America," she said. “Jesrani finds her role an honor and humbling experience. “It's definitely really cool being able to set the example for other people that are just like me," she said. She hopes to inspire others to apply to programs and instills the message that they can do it too.
The Johnson Space Center is the hub of the space flight program. “It's where mission control is, beginning from the early Mercury and Apollo days all the way through the space shuttle program," she explained. At the Space Center, Jesrani leads projects, oversees spaceflight missions and looks forward to using commercial providers like Boeing or SpaceX to send astronauts to the International Space Station. “What's cool about this is that in the next handful of years, we are sending astronauts back to the moon," she said with excitement.
“The International Space Station is conglomerate of a bunch of different countries that have gotten together [like] Russia, Japan, Canada, [the] European space agency; we've created this sort of football field-sized platform that now currently houses astronauts," she said. They are there 24/7 and 365 days a year. “It is a very demanding task because [I am] the final line in case an emergency happens or something [goes] wrong," she explained.
“We're in a really exciting time for the space program in the United States," Jesrani exclaimed. “I feel very honored and humbled."
Though it can be challenging sometimes, Jesrani strives to have a balanced life with her high school sweetheart and their two and a half-year-old daughter. “One of the main things that's important to me is to have balance overall," she said. To her, there is more to life than trying to always excel at work, at home or with friends. Jesrani passionately talks about her husband or daughter. “She's awesome, she's funny and it's fun to be a mom," she gushed. “But then I have this really challenging work life that requires me to travel." She enjoys both her family and working for NASA.
What is an average day like?
“Coming home, I'm sort of like every other parent making sure there's dinner on the table, hanging out with my daughter and husband before bed, and finishing up any work I didn't get the chance to finish during the day," she explained. While she is a flight director at NASA, her husband is a lawyer. Jesrani is grateful to have her family as a support system, as she and her husband have demanding jobs. “I think because of my really supportive husband, my parents, his parents and having a pretty good kid we're almost able to do it all which is unbelievable to say," she laughed.
The morning is especially important, as Jesrani spends quality time with her daughter before she goes to school. Already, her daughter is looking at her as an example of a working mother. “It's funny to see my daughter now say things like; 'Mom can you buy me a purse and I need a car too because I want to go to work just like you,'" she shared. “Having a kid was one of the most rewarding things I've ever done."
Though there has been an abundance of accomplishments in her career, there have also been times where she felt discouraged. When she was a freshman in college, intro to aerospace engineering classes challenged her academically. “[The classes] were really, really hard," she admitted. With dedication and hard work, Jesrani passed the course and at UT Austin the intro classes determined who would go on in the program.
Even now, as an Alumna, there are times when she still faces challenges. “When you're a flight controller you go through a lot of training," she began. “They put you through a lot of simulations to see how you react under pressure, with the stress of the International Space Station, problem-solving and figuring all of that out." Going through that process was a learning experience for her. “You have your entire workforce watching you under pressure in the simulations, [but] I ended up doing pretty well." she continued. At the end of the day, Jesrani became certified and is now sitting in the real Mission Control.
Jesrani advises students, whether they are in STEM, to find a mentor. “I was lucky enough to have really good mentors from the beginning of college to my entire career now," she said. “Seek out other women or even other men that are in roles that you want to get to, roles that inspire to you, roles that you think are challenging or tough but you don't know how to get it or do it." When she started out at NASA, she met her assigned mentor on day one. That mentor has helped her grow throughout her career - and still mentors her today.
Jesrani is looking forward to seeing what happens in the future for women. “The fact that NASA [is] diversifying their selection and including a South Asian female in the Flight Director mix is just awesome," she said. “We've had multiple men on the moon, but we've had zero women that have ever walked on the moon, [landed] on the moon, [gone] around the moon."
There are a lot of things happening in the next 5-10 years at NASA. Jesrani is especially excited about working toward having a woman take a step on the moon. “A small step for man but a giant leap for mankind is what Neil Armstrong said when he was on the moon, and in the documentary (Mercury 13) they [said] a small step for women but a giant leap for womankind," she shared. “To be able to be a role model to other kids that are growing up in this generation and see a woman on the moon is going to be pretty amazing."
Business entities can be defined as the corporate, tax and legal structures which an organization chooses to officially follow at the time of its official registration with the state authorities. In total, there are fifteen different types of business entities, which would be the following.
- Sole Proprietorship
- General Partnership
- Limited Partnership or LP
- Limited Liability Partnership or LLP
- Limited Liability Limited Partnership or LLLP
- Limited Liability Company or LLC
- Professional LLC
- Professional Corporation
- Nonprofit Organization
- Cooperative Organization
As estates, municipalities and nonprofits do not concern the main topic here, the following discussions will exclude the three.
Importance of the State: The Same Corporate Structure Will Vary from State to State
All organizations must register themselves as entities at the state level in United States, so the rules and regulations governing them differ quite a bit, based on the state in question.
What this means is that a Texas LLC for example will not operate under the same rules and regulations as an LLC registered in New York. Also, an LLC in Texas can have the same name as another company that is registered in a different state, but it's not advisable given how difficult it could become in the future while filing for patents.
To know more about such quirks and step-by-step instructions on how to start an LLC in Texas, visit howtostartanllc.com, and you could get started with the online process immediately. The information and services on the website are not just limited to Texas LLC organizations either, but they have a dedicated page for guiding fresh entrepreneurs through the corporate tax structures in every state.
Sole Proprietorship: Default for Freelancers and Consultants
There is only one owner or head in a sole proprietorship, and that's what makes it ideal for one-man businesses that deal with freelance work and consulting services. Single man sole proprietorships are automatic in nature, therefore, registration with the state is unnecessary.
Sole proprietorships are also suited to a degree for singular teams such as a small construction crew, a group of handymen, or even miniature establishments in retail. Also, this puts the owner's personal financial status at jeopardy.
Due to the fact that a sole proprietorship entity puts all responsibilities for paying taxes and returning loans, it directly jeopardizes the sole proprietor's personal belongings in case of a lawsuit, or even after a failed loan repayment.
This is the main reason why even the most miniature establishments find LLCs to be a better option, but this is not the only reason either. Sole proprietors also find it hard to start their business credit or even get significant business loans.
General Partnership: Equal Responsibilities
The only significant difference between a General Partnership and a Sole Proprietorship is the fact that two or more owners share responsibilities and liabilities equally in a General Partnership, as opposed to there being only one responsible and liable party in the latter. Other than that, they more or less share the same pros and cons.
Registration with the state is not necessary in most cases, and although it still puts the finances of the business owners at risk here, the partnership divides the liability, making it a slightly better option than sole proprietorship for small teams of skilled workers or even small restaurants and such.
Limited Partnership: Active and Investing Partners
A Limited Partnership (LP) has to be registered with a state and whether it has just two or more partners, there are two different types of partners in all LP establishments.
The active partner or the general partner is the one who is responsible and liable for operating the business in its entirety. The silent or investing partner, on the other hand, is the one who invests funds or other resources into the organization. The latter has very limited liability or control over the company's operations.
It's a perfect way for investors to put their money into a sector that they are personally not experienced with, but have access to people who do. From the perspective of the general partners, they have similar responsibilities and liabilities to those in a general partnership.
It's the default strategy for startups to find funding and as long as the idea is sound, it has made way for multiple successful entrepreneurial ventures in the recent past. However, personal liability still looms as a dangerous prospect for the active partners to consider.
Limited Liability Company and Professional LLC
Small businesses have no better entity structure to follow than the LLC, given that it takes multiple good ideas from various corporate structures, virtually eliminating most cons that are inherent to them. Any and all small businesses that are in a position to or are in requirement of signing up with their respective state, usually choose an LLC entity because of the following reasons:
- It removes the dangerous aspect of personal liability if the business falls in debt or is sued for reparations
- The state offers the choice of choosing between corporation and partnership tax slabs
- The limited legalities and paperwork make it suited for small businesses
While more expensive than a general partnership or a sole proprietorship, a professional LLC is going to be a much safer choice for freelancers and consultants, especially if it involves risk of any kind. This makes it ideal for even single man businesses such a physician's practice or the consultancy services of an accountant.
B, C and S-Corporation
By definition, all corporation entities share most of the same attributes and as the term suggests, they're more suited for larger or at least medium sized businesses in any sector. The differences between the three are vast once you delve into the tax structures which govern each entity.
However, the basic differences can be observed by simply taking a look at each of their definitive descriptions, as stated below.
C-Corporation – This is the default corporate entity for large or medium-large businesses, complete with a board of directors, a CEO/CEOs, other executive officers and shareholders.
The shareholders or owners are not liable for debts or legal dispute settlements in a C-Corporation, and they may qualify for lower tax slabs than is possible in any other corporate structure. On becoming big enough, they also have the option to become a publicly traded company, which is ideal for generating growth investments.
B- Corporation – the same rules apply as a C-Corporation, but due to their registered and certified commitment to social and environmental standards maintenance, B-Corporations will have a more lenient tax structure to deal with.
S-Corporation – Almost identical to a C-Corporation, the difference is in scale, as S-Corporations are only meant for small businesses, general partnerships and even sole proprietors. The main difference here is that due to the creation of a pass-through entity, aka a S-Corporation, the owner/owners do not have liability for business debt and legal disputes. They also are not taxed on the corporate slab.
Cooperative: Limited Application
A cooperation structure in most cases is a voluntary partnership of limited responsibilities that binds people in mutual interest - it is an inefficient structure due to the voluntary nature of its legal bindings, which often makes it unsuitable for traditional business operations. Nevertheless, the limited liability clause exempts all members of a cooperative from having personal liability for paying debts and settling claims.
This should clear up most of the confusion surrounding the core concepts and their suitability. In case you are wondering why the Professional Corporation structure wasn't mentioned, then that's because it has very limited applications. Meant for self-employed, skilled professionals or small organizations founded by them, they have less appeal now in comparison to an LLC or an S-Corporation.