Photo courtesy of Dolly Dowsie
Lifestyle 13 October 2017
According to Li Edelkoort, one of the world’s best-known trend forecasters, there is an interesting connection between body, lips, and time frame, influenced by focus and proportion. Many factors come into play when analyzing lipstick trends: emphasis on particular body parts, celebrities of the time, and most importantly, the economic and financial status of American society in general. Perhaps you knew that the length of a woman’s skirt is dependent upon the economy, but who knew the color and shape of a woman’s lips could be so telling of the times?
The ’20s – Prohibition and Rebellion[thb_image full_width="true" alignment="center" image="9774" img_size="full"]
A matte-finished, heart-shaped mouth is the expression of the seductive, coquettish woman of the Roaring Twenties. Taking their cue from the scorned-yet-sought-after flapper, women go out to dance, drink illicitly distilled whiskey, and push the envelope of their independence.
Black-and-white movies present the mouth in daring, feminine shapes—the “Cupid’s bow” style of Clara Bow, the “vamp’s lips” of Theda Bara, and the sexy “bee-stung” lips of Mae Murray. Edelkoort notes that because the focal body part of the time period is the legs, “breasts are smallish, and girls are boyish.” Eyes are large and lips are thin. Lip colors are black and garnet red.
The ’30s – Economic Depression
A mouth drawn outwards with square edges emphasizes the stern, perfectionist appearance of the sober ’30s. Women, having witnessed the financial battery of the Great Depression, are thrifty and austere.
Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich—powerful, yet glamorous women who are not afraid to determine their own fate—are idols of the time. Their steely and androgynous appearance personifies the adult woman. Lip color is a silky/glossy reddish brown.
The ’40s – Wartime
A full mouth formed with symmetrical curves represents the courageous, self-assured look of the ’40s despite wartime privations. While men are at war, women are forced to fill their roles, giving them a newfound sense of identity and responsibility.
The Hollywood heroines of the silver screen, such as Rita Hayworth, Joan Crawford, Bette Davis, and Katherine Hepburn encourage the idea that women are equally as capable in filling roles formerly occupied by males. Lipstick becomes an instrument of individual morale, symbolizing strength while disguising sorrow. Lip color is a brilliantly glossy vermillion.
The ’50s – Post-War Period
A voluptuous mouth with the lip line extended beyond the natural shape is reflective of this period of reconstruction. The look is seductive and feminine, revealing the ambivalence of women. On one hand, they oppose the traditional role of women—one they fought to suppress during wartime. On the other hand, they long to embrace their sexuality and femininity.
Consequently, there are two strongly opposing role models: the voluptuous and feminine Marilyn Monroe, and the cool and self-confident Audrey Hepburn. Lip colors are bright red or pink. Edelkoort says that in this period of rebuilding an entire economy, the focus is on the body, and the face is seen as one whole element in perfect proportion.
The ’60s – Flower Power and Rebellion
A full, soft pout goes hand in hand with the rebellious habits of hippies in the sixties. The period is characterized by the exploration of outer space, the sexual revolution, Woodstock, and the anti-war movement.
The youthful, anorexic chic of Twiggy and the provocative pout of Brigitte Bardot are symbols of the rejection of conventional beauty, prosperity, and consumption. Hence, lipstick is still applied, but discreetly. Lip shape is large and colors are shimmering beige-like mother-of-pearl, baby pink, and silver/white. Li attributes this to a sudden shift in sexuality, noting that the most focused-upon body parts are the breasts and butt.
The ’70s – Disco Rules
An outlined, shiny mouth reflects the shimmering iridescence of the ’70s disco look. Saturday Night Fever, Studio 54, platform shoes, and soulful divas like Gloria Gaynor and Diana Ross define this decade. Women break social conventions and explore boundaries.
They are not afraid to become single mothers or fight for their social and political rights, and they are especially unafraid of their sexuality. Lip colors such as glittering crimson or burgundy red convey self-confidence.
The ’80s – Emancipation
A dark, wide mouth represents the provocative punk look of the ’80s. Punk, as a musical statement and a culture, is the first anti-beauty movement. In fashion, women and men alike play with the idea of reverse gender roles. The transvestite chic of Boy George and the fashion of Vivienne Westwood convey “tribal identity.” Influenced by music videos such as Madonna’s “Vogue” and Human League’s “Don’t You Want Me Baby?,” strong eyes and dark lips become a popular trend. Lip colors are dark to black with metallic effects.
The ’90s – Individualism
A clearly outlined mouth painted in natural colors, either shining or matte, documents the grunge-turned-pop look of the ’90s. Internet, cell phones, Pearl Jam and plaid, piercings, tattoos, hip-hop, and the fitness wave set the tone for this decade socially and commercially. Fashion trends change quickly—everything is allowed. The introduction of supermodels—Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Naomi Campbell, and Linda Evangelista—permeates women’s idea of beauty. Brown undergoes a revival, but both dark and bright lip colors are in demand.
2000 – The New Millennium
“Cocooning” is the buzzword for the transition into this new millennium. The term expresses a longing to return to intrinsic value and friends and family: a harmony that does not stop at lip fashion. The shape of the mouth is natural. Soft and warm shades are prominent. Pastels and shimmering shades of beige, pink, and apricot (so-called non-colors) reflect women’s desires to embrace their natural beauty and the quest for eternal balance and happiness. It’s about a return to our basic needs, and in a declining economic climate, a new appreciation for the bare essentials.
So what will the future bring? According to Edelkoort, history will continue to repeat itself. She predicts that, for now, generous, whitish beige lips will reflect our nurturing desire to live at a sustainable, slower pace. “Thinner lips will take us into the 2020’s,” she says. “Eventually, perfect red lips with harmonized proportions between the eyes, lips, and body will balance our beauty in the new era of post-recession and reconstruction.”
This article first appeared on Beauty Matter.
It is one thing to read and another thing to understand what you are reading. Not only do you want to understand, but also remember what you've read. Otherwise, we can safely say that if we're not gaining anything from what we read, then it's a big waste of time.
Whatever you read, there are ways to do so in a more effective manner to help you understand better. Whether you are reading by choice, for an upcoming test, or work-related material, here are a few ways to help you improve your reading skills and retain that information.
Read with a Purpose
Never has there been a shortage of great books. So, someone recommended a great cookbook for you. You start going through it, but your mind is wandering. This doesn't mean the cookbook was an awful recommendation, but it does mean it doesn't suit nor fulfill your current needs or curiosity.
Maybe your purpose is more about launching a business. Maybe you're a busy mom and can't keep office hours, but there's something you can do from home to help bring in more money, so you want information about that. At that point, you won't benefit from a cookbook, but you could gain a lot of insight and find details here on how-to books about working from home. During this unprecedented year, millions have had to make the transition to work from home, and millions more are deciding to do that. Either way, it's not a transition that comes automatically or easily, but reading about it will inform you about what working from home entails.
When you pre-read it primes your brain when it's time to go over the full text. We pre-read by going over the subheadings, for instance, the table of contents, and skimming through some pages. This is especially useful when you have formal types of academic books. Pre-reading is a sort of warm-up exercise for your brain. It prepares your brain for the rest of the information that will come about and allows your brain to be better able to pick the most essential pieces of information you need from your chosen text.
Highlighting essential sentences or paragraphs is extremely helpful for retaining information. The problem, however, with highlighting is that we wind up highlighting way too much. This happens because we tend to highlight before we begin to understand. Before your pages become a neon of colored highlights, make sure that you only highlight what is essential to improve your understanding and not highlight the whole page.
You might think there have been no new ways to read, but even the ancient skill of reading comes up with innovative ways; enter speed reading. The standard slow process shouldn't affect your understanding, but it does kill your enthusiasm. The average adult goes through around 200 to 250 words per minute. A college student can read around 450 words, while a professor averages about 650 words per minute, to mention a few examples. The average speed reader can manage 1,500 words; quite a difference! Of course, the argument arises between quality and quantity. For avid readers, they want both quantity and quality, which leads us to the next point.
Life is too short to expect to gain knowledge from just one type of genre. Some basic outcomes of reading are to expand your mind, perceive situations and events differently, expose yourself to other viewpoints, and more. If you only stick to one author and one type of material, you are missing out on a great opportunity to learn new things.
Having said that, if there's a book you are simply not enjoying, remember that life is also too short to continue reading it. Simply, close it, put it away and maybe give it another go later on, or give it away. There is no shame or guilt in not liking a book; even if it's from a favorite author. It's pretty much clear that you won't gain anything from a book that you don't even enjoy, let alone expect to learn something from it.
If you're able to summarize what you have read, then you have understood. When you summarize, you are bringing up all the major points that enhance your understanding. You can easily do so chapter by chapter.
Take a good look at your life and what's going on in it. Accordingly, you'll choose the material that is much more suitable for your situation and circumstances. When you read a piece of information that you find beneficial, look for a way to apply it to your life. Knowledge for the sake of knowledge isn't all that beneficial. But the application of knowledge from a helpful book is what will help you and make your life more interesting and more meaningful.