African American patients have only a 23% chance of finding a donor - Let's Change That


Like most people, Tiffany Davis hoped she’d never have to battle cancer. But now she’s facing her second battle with the deadly disease. The thirty-two-year-old from Miami, FL graduated with honors in the top 10 percent of her class from Miami Jackson Sr. High and went on to Florida A&M University to earn a Bachelor’s Degree in Health Sciences and a Master’s Degree in Healthcare Administration.

Before fighting cancer became her “career,” Davis was a Financial Counselor at a local hospital. “I have started some entrepreneurial projects. I'm a brand ambassador for a health and wellness company as well as a Certified Lash Technician and looking into going into beauty school.” But cancer doesn’t care about any of Davis’ credentials or successes. Cancer is an undiscriminating beast.

Davis was diagnosed with breast cancer when she was twenty-eight-years-old. It was December 19, 2014. She discovered a lump under her left armpit, and due to her family history of breast cancer, she told her gynecologist that she was concerned. That’s when she found out that what she feared was true.

Getting through chemo, double mastectomy and radiation was only possible with the support of her family and friends and even strangers, “Once I decided to share my journey through social media, I received a lot of support. My family and friends also accompanied me at every chemo appointment. I never had to go through any of this alone.” Davis says her family is everything to her. “They are super supportive. I am the oldest of three siblings from my dad and I’m my mom’s only baby.”

“Once I decided to share my journey through social media, I received a lot of support. My family and friends also accompanied me at every chemo appointment. I never had to go through any of this alone.” -Tiffany Davis

She beat breast cancer and dared to breathe again. Then during a routine blood workup, her breast oncologist delivered a devastating blow - a leukemia diagnosis. On a January 2017 visit her labs were normal, but by June they were not. After repeated tests, a PET scan, blood work and finally a bone marrow biopsy, it was discovered that it was Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). This was July 31, 2017.

The AML was caused by the chemotherapy treatment she endured during her bout with breast cancer. It was something Davis had been concerned about since her first cancer diagnosis. When she beat cancer the first time Davis said she felt relieved, but was fearful of reoccurrence. “I tried to do holistic remedies to keep me as healthy as possible. I believe in doing modern medicine in combination with holistic remedies.”

Finding out later that she had leukemia she said, quite simply-- sucked. “I couldn’t believe that I would have to endure this for a second time.” She had witnessed other women who had had recurrences and hadn’t survived. It was terrifying to watch women so young die from this disease. “Even though mine wasn’t a reoccurrence, I knew what difficulties I may face. I had already gone through so much at a young age, but as I mentioned before I don’t back down easily.” Davis knew what had to be done and if chemo treatment was the plan of action, she was going to do it.

“In my heart, I know that everything will work itself out" - Tiffany Davis (Photo Courtesy, Tiffany Davis)

Davis has moments when she doesn’t know if she’s strong enough or has the patience to wait for good news. She gets tired and faces disappointment again and again, but there is no other option than to keep fighting, “In my heart, I know that everything will work itself out.” Sharing her story with others uplifts her and is a part of her healing. “There are so many people going through so many things in life. I’m just brave enough to share mine.” Having an amazing support system is key. My family and friends are the bomb if I may say so myself.”

If you ask Davis to describe herself, one word rings loud and clear - resilient. “Despite what I am going through I still push through adversity.” She has faith that this is just one chapter of her journey and does not define who she is as a person. “I continue to strive and go after the things I want. I’m a very hard worker and don't believe in handouts so I continue to push myself to be a better version of me.” Yet, strength to push through what Davis has lived through might seem impossible to others.

A bone marrow transplant from a genetically matched donor is Davis’ best shot at survival. What she needs now is a match, and finding one for her is no easy task. African Americans have a greater genetic diversity than other populations around the world, which makes finding the right match particularly difficult.

What makes the search even more of a challenge is the fact that so few members of the African American community sign up and register on the Be The Match registry. Because of that, African American patients have only a 23 percent chance of finding a matched donor, whereas the chance of a match for Caucasians is nearly three times that. The solution is singular and simple, more African Americans have to step up and join.

"African American patients have only a 23 percent chance of finding a matched donor, whereas the chance of a match for Caucasians is nearly three times that."

Raising awareness around this and other ways people can support those with cancer has become Davis’s mission. Cancer changed her, and she wants to change that the African American Community is under-represented in the life-saving registry. “Being able to help others, despite me fighting my own battles,” has been the most inspirational part of this otherwise harrowing journey.

Davis says it’s imperative that people sign up to be a part of the registry as an African American. “There is not much diversity within the registry so it makes it hard to find that perfect match or a match at all,” Davis explains. “Imagine all the people that I know that are not a part of the registry. You can potentially be a match. Be a match and save a life.”

She believes that lack of education about what being a donor means and how easily one can donate is the reason that more people don’t register. “Many people think that they have to go through this invasive process and that’s not the case.” A simple swab is all it takes. No cutting or needles is required.

People can register as marrow donors online on Tiffany’s behalf at: https://join.bethematch.org/tiffstrong

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Choosing the Right Corporate Structure: Which Business Entity Should You Go With?

Business entities can be defined as the corporate, tax and legal structures which an organization chooses to officially follow at the time of its official registration with the state authorities. In total, there are fifteen different types of business entities, which would be the following.

  • Sole Proprietorship
  • General Partnership
  • Limited Partnership or LP
  • Limited Liability Partnership or LLP
  • Limited Liability Limited Partnership or LLLP
  • Limited Liability Company or LLC
  • Professional LLC
  • Professional Corporation
  • B-Corporation
  • C-Corporation
  • S-Corporation
  • Nonprofit Organization
  • Estate
  • Cooperative Organization
  • Municipality

As estates, municipalities and nonprofits do not concern the main topic here, the following discussions will exclude the three.

Importance of the State: The Same Corporate Structure Will Vary from State to State

All organizations must register themselves as entities at the state level in United States, so the rules and regulations governing them differ quite a bit, based on the state in question.

What this means is that a Texas LLC for example will not operate under the same rules and regulations as an LLC registered in New York. Also, an LLC in Texas can have the same name as another company that is registered in a different state, but it's not advisable given how difficult it could become in the future while filing for patents.

To know more about such quirks and step-by-step instructions on how to start an LLC in Texas, visit howtostartanllc.com, and you could get started with the online process immediately. The information and services on the website are not just limited to Texas LLC organizations either, but they have a dedicated page for guiding fresh entrepreneurs through the corporate tax structures in every state.

Sole Proprietorship: Default for Freelancers and Consultants

There is only one owner or head in a sole proprietorship, and that's what makes it ideal for one-man businesses that deal with freelance work and consulting services. Single man sole proprietorships are automatic in nature, therefore, registration with the state is unnecessary.

Sole proprietorships are also suited to a degree for singular teams such as a small construction crew, a group of handymen, or even miniature establishments in retail. Also, this puts the owner's personal financial status at jeopardy.

Due to the fact that a sole proprietorship entity puts all responsibilities for paying taxes and returning loans, it directly jeopardizes the sole proprietor's personal belongings in case of a lawsuit, or even after a failed loan repayment.

This is the main reason why even the most miniature establishments find LLCs to be a better option, but this is not the only reason either. Sole proprietors also find it hard to start their business credit or even get significant business loans.

General Partnership: Equal Responsibilities

The only significant difference between a General Partnership and a Sole Proprietorship is the fact that two or more owners share responsibilities and liabilities equally in a General Partnership, as opposed to there being only one responsible and liable party in the latter. Other than that, they more or less share the same pros and cons.

Registration with the state is not necessary in most cases, and although it still puts the finances of the business owners at risk here, the partnership divides the liability, making it a slightly better option than sole proprietorship for small teams of skilled workers or even small restaurants and such.

Limited Partnership: Active and Investing Partners

A Limited Partnership (LP) has to be registered with a state and whether it has just two or more partners, there are two different types of partners in all LP establishments.

The active partner or the general partner is the one who is responsible and liable for operating the business in its entirety. The silent or investing partner, on the other hand, is the one who invests funds or other resources into the organization. The latter has very limited liability or control over the company's operations.

It's a perfect way for investors to put their money into a sector that they are personally not experienced with, but have access to people who do. From the perspective of the general partners, they have similar responsibilities and liabilities to those in a general partnership.

It's the default strategy for startups to find funding and as long as the idea is sound, it has made way for multiple successful entrepreneurial ventures in the recent past. However, personal liability still looms as a dangerous prospect for the active partners to consider.

Limited Liability Company and Professional LLC

Small businesses have no better entity structure to follow than the LLC, given that it takes multiple good ideas from various corporate structures, virtually eliminating most cons that are inherent to them. Any and all small businesses that are in a position to or are in requirement of signing up with their respective state, usually choose an LLC entity because of the following reasons:

  • It removes the dangerous aspect of personal liability if the business falls in debt or is sued for reparations
  • The state offers the choice of choosing between corporation and partnership tax slabs
  • The limited legalities and paperwork make it suited for small businesses

While more expensive than a general partnership or a sole proprietorship, a professional LLC is going to be a much safer choice for freelancers and consultants, especially if it involves risk of any kind. This makes it ideal for even single man businesses such a physician's practice or the consultancy services of an accountant.

B, C and S-Corporation

By definition, all corporation entities share most of the same attributes and as the term suggests, they're more suited for larger or at least medium sized businesses in any sector. The differences between the three are vast once you delve into the tax structures which govern each entity.

However, the basic differences can be observed by simply taking a look at each of their definitive descriptions, as stated below.

C-Corporation – This is the default corporate entity for large or medium-large businesses, complete with a board of directors, a CEO/CEOs, other executive officers and shareholders.

The shareholders or owners are not liable for debts or legal dispute settlements in a C-Corporation, and they may qualify for lower tax slabs than is possible in any other corporate structure. On becoming big enough, they also have the option to become a publicly traded company, which is ideal for generating growth investments.

B- Corporation – the same rules apply as a C-Corporation, but due to their registered and certified commitment to social and environmental standards maintenance, B-Corporations will have a more lenient tax structure to deal with.

S-Corporation – Almost identical to a C-Corporation, the difference is in scale, as S-Corporations are only meant for small businesses, general partnerships and even sole proprietors. The main difference here is that due to the creation of a pass-through entity, aka a S-Corporation, the owner/owners do not have liability for business debt and legal disputes. They also are not taxed on the corporate slab.

Cooperative: Limited Application

A cooperation structure in most cases is a voluntary partnership of limited responsibilities that binds people in mutual interest - it is an inefficient structure due to the voluntary nature of its legal bindings, which often makes it unsuitable for traditional business operations. Nevertheless, the limited liability clause exempts all members of a cooperative from having personal liability for paying debts and settling claims.

This should clear up most of the confusion surrounding the core concepts and their suitability. In case you are wondering why the Professional Corporation structure wasn't mentioned, then that's because it has very limited applications. Meant for self-employed, skilled professionals or small organizations founded by them, they have less appeal now in comparison to an LLC or an S-Corporation.