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5 Fearless Women Who Helped Shape a Better America

Culture

In a world where men continue to dominate positions of cultural, economic, and political leadership in America and across the globe, gender equality can sometimes feel light years away. And while individuals and organizations are working towards a future where women will no longer have to fight for a seat at the table, it's important to remember our foremothers who set the foundation for today's activism.

Even when there was no path to follow back then, they blazed a trail and paved the way for our efforts today. We've got a long way to go, but if these women can help shape America for the better, then there's no reason why we can't make a positive dent in history, too.

Amelia Earhart

As the first woman aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, Amelia Earhart challenged the traditional stereotypes of her time. She went on to receive the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross for her extraordinary accomplishment, after moving on to break many more records and document her experiences in fascinating books. Sadly, her life was cut short when she and her navigator, Fred Noonan, disappeared in 1937 while attempting to fly around the globe. To this day, the San Francisco Chronicle states that the mystery of her disappearance still captivates people everywhere.

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Rosa Parks

Sitting down when and where you are not supposed to may seem like just a simple act of defiance, but CNN states that it was enough to be a pivotal catalyst in America's civil rights movement. In 1955, Rosa Parks made history when she refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man — a custom that was expected in the time of segregated buses — and was slapped with a civil disobedience charge. Parks came to be known as "the mother of the freedom movement" and continued her activism throughout her life, playing a major role in the Montgomery bus boycott and serving as a symbol of the historic movement.

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Margaret Hamilton

We all know the story of the first man on the moon, but what many don't know is that it was a woman who put him there. Margaret Hamilton was a 24-year-old mathematics graduate who worked in a lab despite living at a time when women were discouraged from going into highly technical work. Despite this, she eventually led a team credited for developing the software behind Apollo and Skylab — pioneering one of the most groundbreaking and epic accomplishments in human history.

Sacagawea

Best known for her stark contributions to the Lewis and Clark expeditions in the American West, Sacagawea has since become a symbol for women's independence. A woman from the Lemhi Shoshone tribe, she traveled thousands of miles, crossing North Dakota all the way to the Pacific Ocean. On the way, she established cultural contracts with Native Americans. An article on Thought Co claims that no other Native American woman has more statues in her honor. Not only is her portrait on the new dollar coin, but monuments of her can be seen in public schools, lakes, and parks.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Hot on the heels of her graduation from Cornell University, Ruth Bader Ginsburg wasted no time and decided to get her law degrees from both Harvard and Columbia law schools. She then went on to become a professor at some of the most esteemed law schools in America, but she was even more instrumental at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), where she helped establish the Women's Rights Project. In 1980, Ginsburg was nominated to the Supreme Court by then President Bill Clinton. During her tenure, she was known to be incredibly outspoken and not afraid to express opinion when needed, earning her a well-deserved place in Special Counsel's feature on female trailblazers in the legal profession. To this day, Justice Ginsburg continues to use her voice to mold the course of America's history.

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Choosing the Right Corporate Structure: Which Business Entity Should You Go With?

Business entities can be defined as the corporate, tax and legal structures which an organization chooses to officially follow at the time of its official registration with the state authorities. In total, there are fifteen different types of business entities, which would be the following.


  • Sole Proprietorship
  • General Partnership
  • Limited Partnership or LP
  • Limited Liability Partnership or LLP
  • Limited Liability Limited Partnership or LLLP
  • Limited Liability Company or LLC
  • Professional LLC
  • Professional Corporation
  • B-Corporation
  • C-Corporation
  • S-Corporation
  • Nonprofit Organization
  • Estate
  • Cooperative Organization
  • Municipality

As estates, municipalities and nonprofits do not concern the main topic here, the following discussions will exclude the three.

Importance of the State: The Same Corporate Structure Will Vary from State to State

All organizations must register themselves as entities at the state level in United States, so the rules and regulations governing them differ quite a bit, based on the state in question.

What this means is that a Texas LLC for example will not operate under the same rules and regulations as an LLC registered in New York. Also, an LLC in Texas can have the same name as another company that is registered in a different state, but it's not advisable given how difficult it could become in the future while filing for patents.

To know more about such quirks and step-by-step instructions on how to start an LLC in Texas, visit howtostartanllc.com, and you could get started with the online process immediately. The information and services on the website are not just limited to Texas LLC organizations either, but they have a dedicated page for guiding fresh entrepreneurs through the corporate tax structures in every state.

Sole Proprietorship: Default for Freelancers and Consultants

There is only one owner or head in a sole proprietorship, and that's what makes it ideal for one-man businesses that deal with freelance work and consulting services. Single man sole proprietorships are automatic in nature, therefore, registration with the state is unnecessary.

Sole proprietorships are also suited to a degree for singular teams such as a small construction crew, a group of handymen, or even miniature establishments in retail. Also, this puts the owner's personal financial status at jeopardy.

Due to the fact that a sole proprietorship entity puts all responsibilities for paying taxes and returning loans, it directly jeopardizes the sole proprietor's personal belongings in case of a lawsuit, or even after a failed loan repayment.

This is the main reason why even the most miniature establishments find LLCs to be a better option, but this is not the only reason either. Sole proprietors also find it hard to start their business credit or even get significant business loans.

General Partnership: Equal Responsibilities

The only significant difference between a General Partnership and a Sole Proprietorship is the fact that two or more owners share responsibilities and liabilities equally in a General Partnership, as opposed to there being only one responsible and liable party in the latter. Other than that, they more or less share the same pros and cons.

Registration with the state is not necessary in most cases, and although it still puts the finances of the business owners at risk here, the partnership divides the liability, making it a slightly better option than sole proprietorship for small teams of skilled workers or even small restaurants and such.

Limited Partnership: Active and Investing Partners

A Limited Partnership (LP) has to be registered with a state and whether it has just two or more partners, there are two different types of partners in all LP establishments.

The active partner or the general partner is the one who is responsible and liable for operating the business in its entirety. The silent or investing partner, on the other hand, is the one who invests funds or other resources into the organization. The latter has very limited liability or control over the company's operations.

It's a perfect way for investors to put their money into a sector that they are personally not experienced with, but have access to people who do. From the perspective of the general partners, they have similar responsibilities and liabilities to those in a general partnership.

It's the default strategy for startups to find funding and as long as the idea is sound, it has made way for multiple successful entrepreneurial ventures in the recent past. However, personal liability still looms as a dangerous prospect for the active partners to consider.

Limited Liability Company and Professional LLC

Small businesses have no better entity structure to follow than the LLC, given that it takes multiple good ideas from various corporate structures, virtually eliminating most cons that are inherent to them. Any and all small businesses that are in a position to or are in requirement of signing up with their respective state, usually choose an LLC entity because of the following reasons:

  • It removes the dangerous aspect of personal liability if the business falls in debt or is sued for reparations
  • The state offers the choice of choosing between corporation and partnership tax slabs
  • The limited legalities and paperwork make it suited for small businesses

While more expensive than a general partnership or a sole proprietorship, a professional LLC is going to be a much safer choice for freelancers and consultants, especially if it involves risk of any kind. This makes it ideal for even single man businesses such a physician's practice or the consultancy services of an accountant.

B, C and S-Corporation

By definition, all corporation entities share most of the same attributes and as the term suggests, they're more suited for larger or at least medium sized businesses in any sector. The differences between the three are vast once you delve into the tax structures which govern each entity.

However, the basic differences can be observed by simply taking a look at each of their definitive descriptions, as stated below.

C-Corporation – This is the default corporate entity for large or medium-large businesses, complete with a board of directors, a CEO/CEOs, other executive officers and shareholders.

The shareholders or owners are not liable for debts or legal dispute settlements in a C-Corporation, and they may qualify for lower tax slabs than is possible in any other corporate structure. On becoming big enough, they also have the option to become a publicly traded company, which is ideal for generating growth investments.

B- Corporation – the same rules apply as a C-Corporation, but due to their registered and certified commitment to social and environmental standards maintenance, B-Corporations will have a more lenient tax structure to deal with.

S-Corporation – Almost identical to a C-Corporation, the difference is in scale, as S-Corporations are only meant for small businesses, general partnerships and even sole proprietors. The main difference here is that due to the creation of a pass-through entity, aka a S-Corporation, the owner/owners do not have liability for business debt and legal disputes. They also are not taxed on the corporate slab.

Cooperative: Limited Application

A cooperation structure in most cases is a voluntary partnership of limited responsibilities that binds people in mutual interest - it is an inefficient structure due to the voluntary nature of its legal bindings, which often makes it unsuitable for traditional business operations. Nevertheless, the limited liability clause exempts all members of a cooperative from having personal liability for paying debts and settling claims.

This should clear up most of the confusion surrounding the core concepts and their suitability. In case you are wondering why the Professional Corporation structure wasn't mentioned, then that's because it has very limited applications. Meant for self-employed, skilled professionals or small organizations founded by them, they have less appeal now in comparison to an LLC or an S-Corporation.